[Grammar – Compound] Learning English and Japanese together 両方 and,and,and

This is a multi-part weekly section on learning grammar because I think a lot of times my grammar needs to be improved and Japanese find it harder to master English grammar as well.

Tae-Kim’s Learning Japanese is a great guide for grammar to follow and I will take time to go through parts that I want to learn and go over.

http://www.guidetojapanese.org/learn/grammar

これは文法上の新しいレッソンです。出来る限り毎週新たな英語文法と日本語の文法を説明する事です。たぶん、一番方法のは普通の会話のぶんぶんを分けて正しく意味を教えます。

自身が100%を完全に通訳出来られないから何がもっと良い答なら私は覚えたいです。

キームさんのサイトは全てを教えたくない、自分が選んだのは何をもっと知らいの事だけで。自分にもサイトで一人でどんどん全部を読んでもいいですよ。

http://www.guidetojapanese.org/learn/grammar/polite

First go over the beginning guide for Japanese verb conjugation(食べる、食べます、食べない、食べません、食べませんでした) and the special cases (いく、する、くる)

Today’s grammar will be on Compound, connection words together in both Japanese and English.

http://www.guidetojapanese.org/learn/grammar/compound

“It is very easy to combine a chain of nouns and adjectives to describe a person or object. For example, in English if we wanted to say, “He is X. He is Y. He is Z.” since all three sentences have the same noun, we would usually say, “He is X, Y, and Z.” In Japanese, we can do the same thing by conjugating the noun or adjective. The last noun or adjective remains the same as before.

______________________________________________________________

How to chain nouns and adjectives together

  • For nouns and na-adjectives: Attach 「で」 to the noun or na-adjective.

  • Examples

    1. 一般的 → 一般的で

    2. 静か → 静かで

  • For i-adjectives and negative noun/adjectives: Replace the 「い」 with 「くて」.

  • ※For 「いい」 and 「かっこいい」, the 「い→よ」 exception applies here as well.

  • Examples

    1. 狭い → 狭くて

    2. 彼女じゃない → 彼女じゃなくて

    3. いい → よくて

How to chain verbs together

  • Positive: Conjugate the verb to its past tense and replace 「た」 with 「て」 or 「だ」 with 「で」. This is often called the te-form even though it could sometimes be ‘de’.

  • Negative: Same as i-adjectives, replace 「い」 with 「くて」.

  • This rule also works for the polite 「です」 and 「ます」 endings.

  • Examples

    1. 学生です → 学生でした → 学生でして

    2. 買います → 買いました → 買いまして

Past Tense

Te-form

食べた

食べて

行った

行って

した

して

遊んだ

遊んで

飲んだ

飲んで

Negative

Te-form

食べない

食べなくて

行かない

行かなくて

しない

しなくて

遊ばない

遊ばなくて

飲まない

飲まなくて

______________________________________________________________

Using the excerpt from the TK site, I will create my own examples and break down the usage into noun, adjective, and verb usage and explain the meaning.

Ex 1) I sprained my ankle so then I wasn’t able to go out to eat, meet my friends and go for a walk.

足首を捻挫しまして,外が出かけなくて,友達と合わせなくて、散歩をしなかった。

In English, we don’t need to say, wasn’t able to ____ again and again, if you say it the first time with a compound then it is linked.  Anything after “I wasn’t able to” means the same negation.  But in Japanese, you must specify each phrase in negation or affirmation, so the ”なくて” is needed.

Riko-san is really pure, kind, and a good person, isn’t she?

2) 理子さんは、とても純粋なで、優しくて、良い人ですね。

Notice in English in the end of a sentence “and” is used to link all the compounds.

He has already not worked for about a year and a half, he has become a long term unemployed.

3) 彼は、もう1年半ぐらい仕事をしなくて、長期失業者になりました。

Notice the time is always before the verb in conjunction in Japanese.  In English, the time should be before the verb, so not

“1 year and a half not work” but “not work for a year and a half”.

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